Animating Soil Models – Animations as teaching and learning material for soil constitutive modeling
Amongst others, the following topics are visualized: yield surfaces, stress invariants, Critical State Soil Mechanics and some related models as the Modified Cam Clay model and clay hypoplasticity.
In the sense of open education, the animations are shared under the open license CC BY to use them as teaching and learning material. The animations certainly do not replace studying the equations, computing or reading books. However, they can facilitate teaching and understanding concepts related to constitutive modeling.
Acknowledgement: I thank the geotechnical engineers on Twitter, through whom I got the idea for this project. I further thank David Mašín for his support here on the platform SoilModels.com and Hans-Peter Schröcker (University of Innsbruck) for suggesting to use asymptote.sourceforge.io for the interactive graphics. I gratefully acknowledge financial support of the University of Innsbruck: ProLehre project, AURORA Challenge Domains. Project duration: 12/2020–11/2021, amount: € 13.808.
… include the animations in LaTeX presentations:
Here you can download an example of how to include an animation in your beamer class presentation:
For every animation, you can download the related PDF file including all slides below each animation.
The PDF animations can be viewed with Acrobat Reader (except on mobile devices).
For Linux users:
Acroread 9 is availabe as Linux installation.
Okular 21.08.1 enables to watch the animations. However, the control buttons are not available using Okular.
Thanks to Wolfgang Fellin for trying out different PDF viewers for Linux.
… animate soil models: (coming soon)
Animations to visualize the stress invariants in principal stress space:
p’: mean effective stress
q: deviatoric stress
θ: the Lode angle to define the deviatoric direction of a stress state
- Griffiths, D.V. (1990): Failure Criteria Interpretation Based on Mohr Coulomb Friction.
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 116, Issue 6.
- Griffiths, D.V. and Huang, J. (2009): Observations on the extended Matsuoka–Nakai failure criterion.
Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech., 33: 1889-1905.
The Modified Cam Clay (MCC) model by Roscoe & Burland (1968) is an elasto-plastic hardening model, assuming associated flow. It includes concepts from Critical State Soil Mechanics as the Normal Compression Line (NCL) and the Critical State Line (CSL).
Click on the images to enlarge them. You can download the GIF files directly. Below each figure, you can also download corresponding PDF files.
Drained (cd) triaxial tests
Undrained (cu) triaxial tests
Linear-elasticity: How does ν affect the K₀-stress path (the stress path under oedometric compression). Mohr-Coulomb hexagon for φ = 30°, c = 0 is added; inspired by Zheng, Liu & Li (2005): doi: 10.1002/nme.1406 φ –ν inequality, sin φ ⩾1 – 2ν
How does ν affect the stress path of a plane-strain (biaxial) compression test. Linear-elastic, perfectly plastic (Mohr-Coulomb: φ = 30°, c = 0, ψ = 0°) model.