PM4Sand (Boulanger & Ziotopoulou)
The models PM4Sand and PM4Silt were developed for geotechnical earthquake engineering applications by Professors Ross W. Boulanger and Katerina Ziotopoulou at the University of California at Davis. PM4Sand is a stress-ratio controlled, critical state compatible, bounding surface plasticity model for sand (and other purely nonplastic granular soils). The PM4Silt plasticity model, which builds on the framework of the PM4Sand model, was developed for representing low-plasticity silts and clays. Model development emphasized approximating a range of undrained monotonic and cyclic loading responses of saturated low-plasticity silts and clays that exhibit stress-history normalized behaviours, as opposed to the responses of purely nonplastic silts and sands described by PM4Sand.
- Ziotopoulou , K., and Boulanger, R. W. (2016). “Plasticity modeling of liquefaction effects under sloping ground and irregular cyclic loading conditions.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 84 (2016), 269-283, 10.1016/j.soildyn.2016.02.013.
- Ziotopoulou, K., and Boulanger, R. W. (2013). “Calibration and implementation of a sand plasticity plane-strain model for earthquake engineering applications.” Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 53, 268-280, 10.1016/j.soildyn.2013.07.009.
- Boulanger, R. W., and Ziotopoulou, K. (2013). “Formulation of a sand plasticity plane-strain model for earthquake engineering applications.” Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Elsevier, 53, 254-267, 10.1016/j.soildyn.2013.07.006.