Clay Hypoplasticity (Mašín, 2014)
Clay hypoplasticity is an advanced incrementally non-linear constitutive model proposed by Mašín (2014) based on critical state soil mechanics developed specifically for simulation of fine-grained materials. Its response has been validated using a number single and finite element simulations of various geotechnical problems, both onshore and offshore. When combined with so-called intergranular strain concept (Niemunis and Herle, 1997), it is capable of predicting small strain stiffness degradation and cyclic loading effects.
Authors & References
Niemunis A, Herle I. (1997). Hypoplastic model for cohesionless soils with elastic strain range. Mechanics of Cohesive-Frictional Materials; 2:279–299.