Sand Hypoplasticity (von Wolffersdorff, 1996)
Sand hypoplasticity is an advanced incrementally non-linear constitutive model, an outcome of an extensive research at Karlsruhe University in 1990’s. It incorporates pressure- and density-dependency of soil behaviour. Its response has been validated using a number single and finite element simulations of various geotechnical problems. When combined with so-called intergranular strain concept (Niemunis and Herle, 1997), it is capable of predicting small strain stiffness degradation and cyclic loading effects.